Monday, 25 April 2016

Pakistan and the Modern World: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Point out four differences between the Muslims and the Hindus as given by Liaquat Ali Khan in "Pakistan and the Modern World".
According to Liaquat Ali Khan the Muslims and the Hindus were different  in religions. The Muslims believed in one God; whereas, the Hindus believed in many gods The Muslims also believed in all Prophets of God; on the other-hand, the Hindus did not believe in any Prophet. The Muslims believed in equality of all men; whereas, the Hindus believed in caste system. Moreover, the Muslims believed in the distribution of wealth and gave women the right of ownership and inheritance; whereas, the Hindus believed in accumulation of wealth. All these religious, socio-economic differences created such a mal-adjustment in the society that it became difficult for the two nations to live together in harmony.

What does Liaquat Ali Khan state about the first and real meaning of freedom, for the common man?
Liaquat Ali Khan rejects the earlier definition of freedom by calling it "an out-worn idea". He broadens the definition by saying that not only the governments should be free from foreign domination, but people of the country should also be free. And according to him, people can only be free if they are free from want, free from disease and free from ignorance. Such a freedom is the real freedom.

According to Liaquat Ali Khan, what are the two main duties of the western world for the progress and maintenance of world peace today?
In his address to the people of America, Liaquat Ali Khan pointed out that since the western world is thought to be more knowledgeable and progressed than the eastern world so it is its duty to share its great fund of knowledge, skill and experience with the Asian countries. Furthermore, they should not shirk from their responsibility for the maintenance of world peace and defy aggression everywhere.

What real meaning of freedom for common man does Liaquat Ali Khan state?
According to him, only freedom from foreign domination is not the real freedom. Real freedom for the common man is freedom from want, hunger, disease and ignorance. Free people are those whose all basic needs are fulfilled and they lead a contend life in a country ruled by their own representatives.

What demands, according to Liaquat Ali Khan, does our freedom make on us?
Our freedom demands that we should try to keep ourselves free from all kinds of dominations. Here he means not only the foreign domination but other forces as well, such as poverty, diseases and ignorance. To keep our freedom intact we must be always on guard or must always be vigilant so that no outside force take advantage of us and make us slaves. 

Briefly state the main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslim's desire not to continue living in a united India.
The main reason given by Liaquat Ali Khan for the Muslim's desire not to continue living in a united India was that they had understood very clearly that they would always be a minority which would be ruled by the Hindus who were in three times their number. So for the Muslims freedom only meant change of masters.  The Hindus were three million in number; whereas, the Muslims were only one million. So the Muslims feared that under such dominating majority of three to one their Muslim culture would suffer a great setback and perhaps be lost. Moreover, the Muslims were economically and industrially backward; whereas, the Hindus were in a better state. If the Muslims came under the Hindu rule, their condition would worsen. Thus the Muslims desired freedom from British as well as freedom from Hindu domination.

Explain the lines, “What are the demands that our freedom makes on us. Our first duty is to ourselves. I do not say this in any spirit of selfishness or chauvinism.”
In the lines Liaquat Ali Khan speaks on one of the significant facts of liberty. He is in a quite scholarly manner analyzed the idea of freedom. He states that freedom requires a nation to be equipped with the sense of responsibility. Freedom is a precious thing. It while providing so many things, demands people’s consciousness of their duties, necessity of civic sense and sense of mutual respect. Liberty enables a nation to think for themselves; for their prosperity, stability and progress. It nourishes and grows their patriotic sense. This can never be regarded as chauvinism, because it is based on aggressive and destructive mode of thinking. On the contrary, patriotism is an essential and integral part of every country’s socio-political set-up. It is within the interest of every state and it is supported by UN and its ideals.

Explain the lines, “Liberty does not descend upon a people; a people must raise themselves to it. It is fruit that must be earned before it can be enjoyed.”
Here, Liaquat Ali Khan speaks about the philosophy of freedom, that it is not a God gifted article. People are not bestowed upon by it. It can be attained through ceaseless efforts. People have to educate and train themselves to posses it. People of the sub-continent made hard efforts, sacrificed their lives, properties and even obliged to migrate. It is the fruit of their sacrifices and struggle that enabled them to become the free citizens of an independent state. It is the achievement of their goal that they are at liberty to practice their religion, to promote their cultural heritage and to develop their social set-up.

Explain the lines, “A free people must maintain their own freedom first. Otherwise they disgrace the fair name of free men and women all over the world. But the maintenance of freedom requires constant vigilance.”

In these lines Liaquat Ali Khan speaks about the philosophy of freedom and liberty. He mentions one of the thought provoking aspects of liberty that it is always in danger of being “license”. He is of the opinion that a nation first of all has to maintain and manage its freedom. In fact, he means to say that the achievement of liberty is difficult but the maintenance of liberty is far more difficult. It demands from a nation to suppress their unlimited desires. It requires self denial. It needs proper manipulation and training. Common man and administrative personnel should be well educated, trained and equipped with loyalty, sincerity and sense of responsibility. It needs sense of mutual respect and tolerance. If people come across any critical situation, they must not violate the rule of law. Mere slogans and riots cannot remove their grievances. Keeping in view the integrity of the state, they have to move on right path and constructive way. This is the sole way which proves to be the guarantee of protection of their liberty.

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